In general, evidence to support the use of piracetam for any condition is unclear. There possibly may be some cognitive benefits in older patients but not in those with dementia. In the United Kingdom, piracetam is available on prescription for myoclonus (involuntary spasmodic contraction of muscles), and may be used off-label for learning difficulties in children and cognitive deficits in the elderly.
Piracetam is a racetam which is a man-made (chemically synthesized), derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Experts are unsure exactly how piracetam works but research does suggest an effect on certain glutamate receptors, but not on GABA.
In addition, piracetam may influence membrane function and fluidity because it interacts with the polar heads in the phospholipid membrane, improving membrane stability and allowing the membrane to function normally with regards to transport of substances across the membrane, chemical secretion, and receptor binding and stimulation. This is thought to restore nerve transmission and provide neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects.
Most trials for piracetam were conducted years ago and did not use robust quality standards. Several Cochrane reviews have concluded that more evidence is needed. There may be some benefits for improving seizure or myoclonus frequency and also cognition in those who are aging, but not for those with dementia. There does not seem to be any benefit of piracetam for healthy people.
When given for breath-holding spells in children, a dosage of 40-100mg per kilogram of body weight was used but you should always consult with a health professional before giving piracetam to children as it is not effective for many conditions.
Since piracetam was developed in the 1960s, more than 20 piracetam-like substances have been developed for the purpose of improving cognitive function, treating cognitive impairment, or treating other nervous system disorders, although some are no longer available. These racetams are all man-made (chemically synthesized), derivatives of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and share a common structural feature, that of a 2-pyrrolidone nucleus. Experts are unsure how these substances work but research does suggest an effect on certain glutamate receptors, but not on GABA.
Levetiracetam is structurally like piracetam (it is also a racetam) but it is much more potent than piracetam as an anticonvulsant although its antidystonic effect (ability to control random muscle contractions) is similar to piracetam. It is marketed under the brand names Elepsia XR, Keppra, Keppra XR, Roweepra, Spritam, Roweepra XR in the U.S. as a treatment partial onset seizures, myoclonic seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures.
Piracetam is not illegal in the United States but because it is not regulated or approved by the FDA as a dietary supplement, it can technically only be sold for research purposes. However, despite the FDA rejecting piracetam as a dietary supplement, it can be still found as a dietary supplement, and remains available for purchase, despite warning letters from the FDA asking companies to stop marketing it. One study [Cohen PA, 2019] investigated 10 different over-the-counter piracetam supplements and found:
In Europe, the legal status of piracetam varies depending on the country. Some, such as the Czech Republic and Ukraine, do not require a prescription to buy piracetam. Others, such as Italy, Norway, and Spain do require a prescription.
Hello, I'm new to the nootropics scene and am a student at uni in England and tried Ritalin which I was really impressed with. A friend is also sending me some Modafinil which could be pretty good, but these are just temporary concentration enhancers really. After doing some research I think I'd like to try piracetam, I read it improves your general cognition and also social ability which I really want to try out.
Reputable UK-based nootropic sites don't sell piracetam because it is prescription-only in the UK. However, they do sell aniracetam, oxiracetam, noopept, nefiracetam, pramiracetam, sunifiram, phenylpiracetam and even coluracetam. IMHO these are better than plain piracetam for the simple reason that you need to take a lot less of them for very similar effect. If you want it for study with a slight stimulant effect, I'd suggest oxiracetam, but take it with citicoline. Two reputable sites are: nootropics.co.uk (which sells most of its -racetams in pill form, rather than capsules) and mindnutrition.com which sells powders as well as capsules (don't bother with their premixed formulas, though -- they mix in too many things). One that does sell piracetam (but they call it nootrocetam) is nootropics.eu . They used to be UK based, but seem to be taking their payments now via a Spanish payment processing system. I think it's so that they can sell piracetam. As for intellimeds.co.uk -- I have to say I've used them without any problem (most recently for coluracetam, but previously for noopept powder, oxiracetam and others). Again, they don't sell piracetam, but they do sell almost everything else. If you want the real deal, manufactured as a prescription medicine, then Doc Simon's piracetam / geratam (same thing) is the way to go, and pay the high postage costs (but cheap product). I preferred geratam because it is pure white and doesn't have the sunset-yellow colouring that the other brand they sell has in it.
I ordered some piracetam from New Star Nootropics last year, and I had no issues. It declared on the packaging what it was, and as it's not illegal to import without a prescription, there were no issues.
In one study in 16 healthy people, those taking 1,200 mg of piracetam daily performed better at verbal learning tasks than people in the placebo group after 14 days, though no differences in memory and cognition had been detected after 7 days (10).
Additional research in 18 healthy, older adults found that participants performed significantly better in a variety of learning tasks when taking 4,800 mg of piracetam per day, compared to when not supplementing with the drug (12).
Similarly, a study in 18 adults with Unverricht-Lundborg disease, a type of epilepsy that causes myoclonic seizures, showed that taking 24 grams of piracetam daily improved symptoms and signs of disability caused by myoclonic seizures (17).
In another study, 11 people took up to 20 grams of piracetam daily for 18 months alongside their existing medication to further help reduce myoclonic seizure symptoms. Researchers found that piracetam helped reduce the overall severity of myoclonic seizures (19).
For example, an analysis of 19 studies in approximately 1,500 adults with dementia or brain impairment revealed that 61% of people taking piracetam showed improved mental performance, compared to only 33% with the placebo treatment (25).
In animal studies, piracetam has been shown to have antioxidant properties, which means it can reduce inflammation by helping neutralize free radicals, which are potentially harmful molecules that can damage your cells (30). 59ce067264